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History Of Malaysia

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History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Sun Feb 15, 2009 9:23 pm


Malaysia is a country in South East Asia whose strategic sea-lane position brought trade and foreign influences that fundamentally influenced its history. Hindu India, the Islamic Middle East and Christian Europe to its west, and China and Japan to the north-east were major influences brought by shipping routes passing through the region. Malaysian history is also intertwined with that of neighbouring Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Brunei and Thailand. This trade and foreign cultures brought the area great wealth and diversity, but also domination and colonialism. The history of Malaysia is one of successive phases of outside influence, followed by the mid-twentieth century establishment of independence from foreign colonial powers. Hindu and Buddhist cultures imported from India dominated early Malaysian history. They reached their peak in the Sumatran-based Srivijaya civilisation, whose influence extended through Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula and much of Borneo from the 7th to the 14th centuries.

Although Muslims had passed through Malaysia as early as the tenth century, it was not until the 14th and 15th centuries that Islam first established itself on the Malayan Peninsular. The adoption of Islam by the fifteenth century saw the rise of number sultanates, the most prominent of which was the Melaka (Malacca). Islamic culture has had a profound influence on the Malay people, but has also been influenced by them. The Portuguese were the first European colonial powers to establish themselves in Malaysia, capturing Malacca in 1511, followed by the Dutch. However, it was the British, who after initially establishing bases at Jesselton, Kuching, Penang and Singapore, ultimately secured their hegemony across the territory that is now Malaysia. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies (which became Indonesia). A fourth phase of foreign influence was immigration of Chinese and Indian workers to meet the needs of the colonial economy created by the British in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo.[1]

Japanese invasion during World War II ended British domination in Malaysia. The subsequent occupation from 1942 to 1945 unleashed nationalism in Malaya and Borneo. In the Peninsula, the Malayan Communist Party took up arms against the British. A tough military response was needed to end the insurgency and bring about the establishment of an independent, multi-racial Federation of Malaya in 1957. On 31 August 1963, the British territories in North Borneo and Singapore were granted independence and formed Malaysia with the Peninsular states on 16 September 1963. Approximately two years later, Singapore was expelled from the Federation. A confrontation with Indonesia occurred in the early-1960s. Race riots in 1969 led to the imposition of emergency rule, and a curtailment of political life and civil liberties which has never been fully reversed. Since 1970 the "National Front coalition" headed by United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) has governed Malaysia. Economic growth dramatically increased living standards by the 1990s. This growing prosperity helped minimise political discontent.[citation needed] Successive UMNO-dominated governments have promoted the use of the Malay language and carried out systematic positive discrimination in favour of Muslims, measures which cause great resentment.

I LOVE MALAYSIA!!YIPPIE!!

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Sun Feb 15, 2009 9:31 pm

MULTIRACIAL.

Indian influence
There were numerous Malay kingdoms in the 2nd and 3rd century CE—as many as 30 according to Chinese sources. Kedah—known as Kedaram or Kataha, in ancient Pallava or Sanskrit—was in the direct route of invasions of Indian traders and kings. Rajendra Chola, Tamil Emperor who is now thought to have laid Kota Gelanggi to waste, put Kedah to heel in 1025 but his successor, Vir Rajendra Chola, had to put down a Kedah rebellion to overthrow the invaders. The coming of the Chola reduced the majesty of Srivijaya which had exerted influence over Kedah and Pattani and even as far as Ligor.

The Buddhist kingdom of Ligor took control of Kedah, and its King Chandrabhanu used it as a base to attack Sri Lanka in the 11th century, an event noted in a stone inscription in Nagapattinum in Tamil Nadu and in the Sri Lankan chronicles, Mahavamsa. During the first millennium, the people of the Malay peninsula adopted Hinduism and Buddhism and the use of Sanskrit until their later conversion to Islam.

Melaka & Islamic Jaya.
The port of Melaka ("Malacca") on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula was founded around 1400 by Parameswara, a rebel prince of the Srivijaya royal line, who was claimed in the Sejarah Melayu to be a descendant of Alexander the Great. Expelled from Sumatra for killing the ruler of Temasek (modern day Singapore), Parameswara established himself in Melaka. The kingdom rapidly assumed the place previously held by Srivijaya, establishing independent relations with China, and exploiting its position dominating the Straits to control the China-India maritime trade, which became increasingly important when the Mongol conquests closed the overland route between China and the west. Within a few years of its establishment, Melaka officially adopted Islam, and the Raja became a Sultan.

The political power of the Malaccan Sultanate helped Islam’s rapid spread through the archipelago, reaching as far as modern day Philippines, while leaving Bali as an isolated outpost of Hinduism. Islam came to the Malay Archipelago via India, and unlike Middle Eastern Islam it was influenced by the mystical traditions of Sufism, and also absorbed some elements of Malay[citation needed] animist and Hindu traditions. Because Islam was introduced by traders and not military conquest, there was no imposition of the Arabic language or Arab political customs.[citation needed] Since most ethnic Malays could not read the Arabic Qur'an, the local version of Islam was much less rigorous than in the Arabic world. And since the indigenous Malay rulers retained their power, the Islamic clergy did not gain the political influence it enjoyed in other parts of the Islamic world.

Melaka's reign lasted little more than a century, but it came to be seen as a golden age of Malay self-rule,[citation needed] and the Sultans of Melaka became the models for all subsequent Malay rulers.[citation needed] Melaka became a cultural centre, creating the matrix of the modern Malay culture: a blend of indigenous Malay and imported Indian, Chinese and Islamic elements. Melaka's fashions in literature, art, music, dance and dress, and the ornate titles of its royal court, came to be seen as the standard for all ethnic Malays. The court of Melaka also gave great prestige to the Malay language, which had originally evolved in Sumatra and been brought to Melaka at the time of its foundation. In time Malay came to be the official language of all the Malaysian states, although local languages survived in many places.

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Sun Feb 15, 2009 9:39 pm

and you all should see all the real story movies about malaysian history like Bukit Kepong,Sarjan Hassan,1957 & ...i dont remember.But u can watch it in the TV every august. lol!

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by eve on Tue Feb 17, 2009 9:40 pm

very good shasha... very good... i like to read your story...
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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Tue Feb 17, 2009 9:54 pm

i just...love history.=)

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Tue Feb 17, 2009 9:55 pm

haha.cute oh ur angel eve.

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by Admin on Tue Feb 17, 2009 10:00 pm

yes, mee too... i like reading your story... it's an interesting story..

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Tue Feb 17, 2009 10:03 pm

i found it at wikipedia.many types of articles u can read there. Like a Star @ heaven

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by Cikgu X on Wed Feb 18, 2009 9:39 am

very good shasa... tq
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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by shasha_polcey on Thu Feb 19, 2009 3:03 pm

Like a Star @ heaven
in fact,we're leraning together...
rite.......
Like a Star @ heaven

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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by brenda on Thu Feb 19, 2009 6:48 pm

we can also get information in magazines like Kuntum and Dewan Pelajar magazines.
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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by mira_96 on Thu Feb 19, 2009 8:27 pm

i also like it...
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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by brenda on Thu Feb 19, 2009 8:59 pm

u have that magazine ka mira?
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Re: History Of Malaysia

Post by mira_96 on Thu Feb 19, 2009 9:27 pm

no... i just read above there ....
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Re: History Of Malaysia

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